GSK and Sanofi COVID-19 Vaccine Produced in Insect Cells with Squalene Adjuvant

GSK and Sanofi COVID-19 Vaccine Produced in Insect Cells with Squalene Adjuvant

Story Highlights

  • GlaxoSmithKline and Sanofi Pasteur are partnering to develop an experimental COVID-19 vaccine.
  • The two global vaccine manufacturers are using existing recombinant DNA vaccine technology and a squalene adjuvant for their COVID-19 vaccine.
  • Clinical trials are scheduled to begin in the second half of 2020 and, if successful, the vaccine will be available in 2021.

On Apr. 14, 2020, GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) of the United Kingdom and Sanofi Pasteur of France announced they have signed a letter of intent to collaborate on development of an experimental COVID-19 vaccine using existing technology patented by both companies.1 According to GSK’s chief executive Emma Walmsley, “This collaboration brings two of the world’s largest vaccines companies together. By combining our science and our technologies, we believe we can help accelerate the global effort to develop a vaccine to protect as many people as possible from COVID-19.”1

GSK and Sanofi are developing the COVID-19 vaccine in collaboration with and $30M in funding from the U.S. government’s Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA)2 under the HHS Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response. The experimental coronoavirus vaccine will combine GSK’s proprietary squalene-based vaccine adjuvant AS03 used in the company’s H1N1 influenza vaccine Pandemrix, with the insect cell-based recombinant DNA vaccine technology that Sanofi Pasteur currently uses to make their inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine, FluBlok.

GSK is the largest pharmaceutical company in the world by revenue and Sanofi is the third largest. According to Scrip Informa Pharma Intelligence, the business partnership between the two experienced vaccine manufacturers utilizing already licensed technology to create a COVID-19 vaccine could place them in front of companies seeking approval for experimental mRNA and DNA technology not yet licensed:3

It has taken longer to emerge than the many fast-tracked programs launched in recent months, but GlaxoSmithKline PLC’s decision to work with Sanofi could prove to be a significant boost to the chances of a broadly effective COVID-19 vaccine emerging in 2021. There are around 70 vaccines against COVID-19 currently in development around the world—including candidates based on novel technologies from Moderna, Inovio and Cansino Biologics already in Phase I trials. But two of these frontrunners have never brought a vaccine to market before, and the third has only limited experience—which makes their chances of success much slimmer.

GSK’s Squalene-Based AS03 Adjuvant

Adjuvants are added to vaccines to enhance the pro-inflammatory immune response induced by vaccination.4 Aluminum salts were added to the diphtheria-tetanus toxoid vaccines in the 1920’s and remained as an ingredient when whole cell pertussis vaccine was added to create the combination DPT vaccine in the 1940s, and also when the acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP) vaccine was licensed for infants in 1996. Aluminum-based adjuvants are included in hepatitis, HPV, pneumococcal, meningococcal and other inactivated vaccines routinely administered to children and adults, as well as in anthrax vaccine given to US military personnel.5 Evidence that aluminum is neurotoxic to humans has been steadily accumulating in the medical literature.6 7

An oil-based vaccine adjuvant was introduced in the U.S. in 2007, when GSK’s HPV vaccine, Cervarix, was licensed and contained monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) combined with aluminum hydroxide (Cervarix is no longer available in the U.S.).8 In 2012, the FDA licensed an H5N1 influenza vaccine containing GSK’s oil-based AS03 adjuvant and the vaccine was added to the national stockpile for emergency use if there is an outbreak of H5N1 bird flu.9 In 2015, the FDA licensed an influenza vaccine (Fluad) manufactured by Sequiris for seniors over age 65 years that contains an oil-in-water emulsion of squalene oil (MF59) as an adjuvant.10 11

AS03 is GSK’s proprietary adjuvant system containing a-tocopherol and squalene in an oil-in-water emulsion.12 AS03 ramps up the pro-inflammatory immune response in the body to try to generate cellular immunity and more vaccine strain antibodies. Adding AS03 to a vaccine also makes it easier for a company to manufacture a vaccine in large quantities.13

If the FDA licenses a COVID-19 vaccine containing ASO3, it would be the first time a vaccine recommended for all children and adults in the U.S. would contain an oil-based adjuvant.

GSK’s 2009/2010 H1N1 influenza vaccine, Pandemrix, contained the company’s AS03 adjuvant. Pandemrix was never licensed in the U.S. but, after it was used in 2009-2010 in Europe, there were reports that a number of children in Norway, Finland, the UK and other countries developed narcolepsy, an autoimmune disorder.14 By 2013, studies conducted in Europe had confirmed an association between the AS03-adjuvanted Pandemrix vaccine and narcolepsy.15 16 In response, GSK scientists published a study in 2019 defending the safety of AS03.17

There are continuing reports in the medical literature that children and adults with certain genotypes are more susceptible to developing autoimmune disorders after receiving adjuvanted vaccines, raising questions about increased risks for individuals unable to resolve strong pro-inflammatory responses stimulated by oil-based adjuvants like AS03.18 19

GSK Aware of AS03 Adjuvant Knowledge Gaps

In 2018, scientists working for GSK commented in an article for Seminars in Immunology that there are significant knowledge gaps about the molecular mechanisms for how vaccine adjuvants affect immune function:20

Oil in water emulsions are stronger adjuvant as compared to aluminum salts and have different mechanisms of action. Nevertheless, they have two things in common: (1) their mode of action is not via TLR binding; (ii) their development, as for alum, was empirical and based on rather old technology used to formulate compounds, without a solid understanding of the mechanisms underlying their immunostimulatory properties. Thus, for aluminum salts, the exact molecular mechanisms involved in the adjuvanticity of emulsions remains unknown.

The GSK scientists acknowledged that oil adjuvanted vaccines increase the inflammatory response to increase immunogenicity, while also increasing reactogenicity, and the biological mechanisms for adverse reactions and the genetic risk factors involved are not understood:

Common to all adjuvanted vaccines, an increase in short-lived local and systemic symptoms (often referred to as reactogenicity) is observed after vaccination when emulsions are used. The mechanisms of reactogenicity have not been studied in detail and not surprisingly, there are no established biomarkers of reactogenicity of vaccines in general, including adjuvanted vaccines. A study in adults in the UK vaccinated with AS03-adjuvanted A/H1N1 pandemic vaccines reported a higher expression of a small set of genes in those individuals who had reported adverse events of medium/high intensity, although it is not clear whether these genes directly related to clinical symptoms… It needs, then, to be determined whether these signatures are specific to one particular adjuvant, for a family of adjuvants, or could represent a common signature of a propensity to reactogenicity which becomes more apparent in individuals with specific pre-vaccination phenotypes or with defined, still unspecified genetic signatures.

COVID-19 Vaccine Uses Army Worm Cells and Baculovirus Expression Vector Platform

Sanofi Pasteur will contribute its S-protein COVID-19 antigen, which is based on recombinant DNA technology, for the experimental coronovirus vaccine. According to the joint press release issued by GSK and Sanofi on Apr. 14, “This technology has produced an exact genetic match to proteins found on the surface of the virus, and the DNA sequence encoding this antigen has been combined into the DNA of the baculovirus expression platform, the basis of Sanofi’s licensed recombinant influenza product in the US.”1

Sanofi’s recombinant FluBlok influenza vaccine was originally developed by Protein Sciences, a Connecticut biotechnology company that Sanofi purchased in 2017.21 In 2013, the FDA licensed trivalent FluBlok influenza vaccine and, in 2017, quadrivalent FluBlok was licensed.22

In 2012, a year before the FDA gave Protein Sciences a license to market FluBlok in the U.S., a scientist working for Protein Sciences explained the “plug and play” benefits of using the Baculovirus Expression Vector System (BEVS) for vaccine production:23

The potential of the BEVS platform is enormous as its transient nature makes it an attractive “plug and play” protein production system—a single well characterized cell line is used for the production of all proteins, thereby eliminating the time-consuming process of preparing, qualifying and securing regulatory approval of a new cell line for each new protein. By developing a universal protein purification process, one can begin to imagine that a single multi-product production facility could be established to produce a multitude of vaccines to combat a broad range of diseases.

Sanofi’s FluBlok contains hemagglutinen (HA) genes from influenza viruses produced in ovarian cells from the Fall Army Worm (Spodopter frugperda) using a baculovirus expression system.24 25 Canadian bioengineers described the 45-day process it takes to produce FluBlok vaccine:26

FluBlok production involves an initial cloning process of the HA gene into the baculovirus expression vector. The recombinant baculovirus generated is then used to infect insect cells in large-scale bioreactors. The infected cells are harvested using centrifugation, and the antigen is extracted from the cells using Triton X-100 and then clarified using depth filtration.

According to the National Institutes of Health, the recombinant DNA technology that Sanofi uses to produce their FluBlok influenza vaccine (and will be used to produce the GSk/Sanofi COVID-19 vaccine) will likely eventually replace traditional vaccine production methods:27

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) and its industry partners have made progress in moving from both the egg-based and cell-based flu vaccine production methods toward recombinant DNA manufacturing for flu vaccines. This method does not require an egg-grown vaccine virus and does not use chicken eggs at all in the production process. Instead, manufacturers isolate a certain protein from a naturally occurring (“wild type”) recommended flu vaccine virus. These proteins are then combined with portions of another virus that grows well in insect cells. The resulting “recombinant” vaccine virus is then mixed with insect cells and allowed to replicate. The flu surface protein called hemagglutinin is then harvested from these cells and purified.

GSK’s virus-like-particle HPV vaccine, Cervarix also uses BEVS for production. In 2015, virologists in the Netherlands observed that expiration of the original patent on BEVS is facilitating “commercial application of this expression system by many more companies.”28

Mammalian Cells Able to Internalize Baculovirus

A baculovirus is an enveloped double-stranded DNA virus that can infect many different types of insects. The baculovirus Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) is the one most widely used by virologists and biotechnology companies to produce recombinant proteins.

News-Medical describes how “mammalian cells are able to internalize baculovirus” and how the Baculovirus Expression Vector System (BEVS) and can be used to express and deliver genes:29

The insect cell-based BEVS has been extensively used to produce many diverse types of recombinant proteins for research, medical, agricultural, and veterinary purposes. Recombinant AcMNPV-infected insect cells produce a huge amount of recombinant proteins.  The baculovirus polyhedrin or p10 is normally highly expressed during the late stages of infection and is not essential for the pathogenesis and replication within a host insect cell. The baculovirus polyhedrin or p10 can be replaced with a gene of interest, which allows for the promoters to express the gene in abundance allowing for a very high concentration of the gene of interest to be made. AcMNPV is a virus that can only infect insects. Past studies discovered that mammalian cells were able to internalize baculovirus. Other studies subsequently discovered that recombinant AcMNPV can infect mammalian cells. Recombinant baculovirus can be combined with several different proteins in order to target different cell types.

When Protein Sciences first approached the FDA with evidence for fast tracking licensure of FluBlok, the National Vaccine Information Center (NVIC) provided a public comment at a November 2009 meeting of the FDA Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee (VRBPAC) questioning whether high protein content and using insect calls and insect viruses for vaccine production could compromise safety:30

FluBlok contains three times as much protein as other influenza vaccines. There is always the potential for increased cross-reactive autoimmune responses in individuals who are genetically predisposed to autoimmunity and immune mediated neurological dysfunction. I am thinking of the Bell’s Palsy case in these trials that may or may not have been triggered or exacerbated by FluBlok vaccination. The relatively small numbers of individuals in these clinical trials may not reveal the rarer but very serious complications involving demyelination of the brain and autoimmune disorders that have been reported following receipt of recombinant protein vaccines such as hepatitis B and HPV vaccines, including GBS, CNS vasculitis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus and multiple sclerosis.

In the current effort to fast track the use of a new technology which clones hemagglutinin genes from three influenza viruses—which may be of human as well as mammal and bird origin—and splice them into baculoviruses, which are then used to infect caterpillar cells to produce the hemagglutinin contained in the new recombinant protein based influenza vaccine, there is always the possibility that adventitious agents contaminating insect cells could end up in the vaccines.

A 2005 World Health Organization document on regulation of candidate human vaccines states that “Most insect cells may have viruses in them and infection can be hard to detect and difficult to eliminate…steps should be taken to eliminate them.” The inadvertent contamination of polio vaccines with SV40 serves as a cautionary tale and the public will clearly want reassurance that sufficient adventitious agent contamination screening is in place with this vaccine using an insect virus and insect cells for production, guaranteeing that no future unusual adverse effects will be seen as more people receive the vaccine.

In 2015, a Protein Science official stated in Biotechnology Journal that the insect-based BEVS platform to produce vaccines must be carefully monitored for adventitious agent contamination:31

Adventitious agents have been detected in some insect cell lines. For instance, the Trichoplusia ni High Five cell line, BTI‐TN‐5B1‐4, used to make Cervarix®, was found to be latently infected with an Alphanodavirus that was induced by recombinant baculovirus infection. In addition, other insect cell lines, such as those generated from Drosophila melanogaster, have been shown to harbor innate retroelements derived from retroviruses that could potentially be infectious. More recently, a possible insect‐specific virus Sf‐rhabdovirus was identified in Spodoptera frugiperda cells. Although studies showed that this virus could not enter or replicate in human cell lines and, therefore, is unlikely to be a risk, novel cell lines will most likely need to be characterized and monitored for the presence of this virus as they are for nodaviruses, retroviruses and others. In general, because adventitious agents are a potential threat, cell substrates of all origins (including insect and others) must be thoroughly tested for the presence and infectivity of such agents before they are allowed by regulatory agencies for manufacturing use.

Goal to Manufacture 600 Million Doses By 2021

Sanofi and GSK with their combined manufacturing capacity are hoping to produce up to 600 million doses of their new coronavirus vaccine by 2021.32 Clinical trials are scheduled to begin in the second half of 2020 and, if trial results are positive, the companies plan to make the vaccine available to the public by the second half of 2021.4

Sanofi and GSK maintain they have an advantage in the race to be the first to put a licensed COVID-19 on the market, not only because they are using already-licensed technologies, but because of their ability to produce more doses of the vaccine quickly in the COVID-19 pandemic situation.33 GSK’s chief executive Emma Walmsley stated, “The advantages are we both have scale in manufacturing. These are both proven pandemic technologies whether their antigen [the protein that forms the basis of Sanofi’s vaccine] or our adjuvant.”34

Multiplying COVID-19 Vaccine Business Partnerships

Prior to this collaboration between GSK and Sanofi Pasteur, Sanofi was already in a COVID-19 vaccine partnership with Translate Bio, a clinical-stage messenger RNA (mRNA) therapeutics company in Massachusetts that is focusing on developing mRNA vaccines.35

GSK is also involved in providing its ASO3 squalene adjuvant for other companies and universities developing COVID-19 vaccines: Australia’s University of Queenland; California’s Dynavax Technologies Corp; Innovax, a subsidiary of China’s YangShengTang Group; China’s Xiamen University, and China’s Clover Biopharmaceuticals Inc.36


References:

1 GlaxoSmithKline. Sanofi and GSK to join forces in unprecedented vaccine collaboration to fight COVID-19. Apr. 14, 2020.
2 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. BARDA’s Rapidly Expanding COVID-19 Medical Countermeasures Portfolio: Protein Sciences, a Sanofi Company, Recombinant SARS-CoV2 Protein Vaccine Candidate. May 2020.
3 McConaghie A. GSK Plus Sanofi: The COVID-19 Vaccine Dream Team? Scrip Informa Pharma Intelligence Apr. 15 2020.
4 Alter G, Sekaly RP. Beyond adjuvants: Antagonizing inflammation to enhance vaccine immunity. Vaccine 2015; 33(Suppl 2): B55-B59.
5 U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. What is an adjuvant and why is it added to a vaccine? Oct. 24, 2018.
6 Exley C. The Toxicity of Aluminium in Humans. Morphologie 2016; 100(329): 51-55.
7 Morris G, Puri BK, Frye RE. The putative role of environmental aluminium in the development of chronic neuropathology in adults and children. How strong is the evidence and what could be the mechanisms Involved? Metab Brain Dis 2017; 32(5): 1335-1355.
8 CDC. Common Ingredients in U.S. Licensed Vaccines. Apr. 30, 2018.
9 Roos R. FDA panel endorses H5N1 vaccine with adjuvant. CIDRAP. Nov. 15, 2012.
10 CDC. Flu Vaccine with Adjuvant. Sept. 24, 2019.
11 El Sahly H. (2010) MF59™ as a vaccine adjuvant: a review of safety and immunogenicity. Exp Rev Vaccin 2014; 9(10):1135-1141.
12 Garcon N, Vaughn DW, Didierlaurant AM. Development and Evaluation of AS03, an Adjuvant System Containing a-Tocopherol and Squalene in an Oil-in-Water Emulsion. Expert Rev Vaccines 2012; 11(3): 349-366.
13 Herper M. Sanofi and GlaxoSmithKline collaborate to speed up coronavirus vaccine development. Stat News  Apr. 14, 2020.
14 Kellend K. Insight: GSK vaccine ingredient scrutinized for narcolepsy clues. Reuters Feb. 8, 2013.
15 Miller E, Andrews N et al. Risk of Narcolepsy in Children and Young People Receiving AS03 Adjuvanted Pandemic A/H1N1 2009 Influenza Vaccine: Retrospective Analysis. BMJ 2013; 346: f794.
16 CDC. Narcolepsy Following Pandemrix Influenza Vaccines in Europe. Jan. 29, 2020.
17 Cohet C, van der Most R et al. Safety of AS03 adjuvanted influenza vaccines: A review of the evidence. Vaccine 2019; 37(23): 3006-3021.
18 Vera-Lastra O, Medine G et al. Autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (Shoenfeld’s syndrome): clinical and immunological spectrum. Exp Rev Clin Immunol 2013; 9(4).
19 Watad A, Quaresma M et al. Autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (Shoenfeld’s syndrome) – An Update. Lupus Jan. 6, 2017.
20 Del Giudice G, Rappuoli R, Didierlaurent AM. Correlates of adjuvanticity: A review on adjuvants in licensed vaccines. Seminars in Immunology 2018; 39: 14-21.
21 Sanofi Pasteur. Sanofi completes the acquisition of Protein Sciences. Press Release Aug. 28, 2017.
22 CDC. Recombinant Influenza (Flu) Vaccine. Nov. 26, 2019.
23 Cox MMJ. Recombinant protein vaccines produced in insect cells. Vaccine 2012: 30(1): 1759-1766.
24 Felderbaum RS. The baculovirus expression vector system: A commercial manufacturing platform for viral vaccines and gene therapy vectors. Biotech J 2015; 10(5): 702-714.
25 CDC. Flublok Seasonal Influenza (Flu) Vaccine. National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases Nov. 26, 2019.
26 Milian E, Kamen E. Current and Emerging Cell Culture Manufacturing Technology for Influenza Vaccines. Biomed Res Int 2015; 504831.
27 NIAID. Influenza Vaccine Production and Design. June 5, 2019.
28 vanOers MM, Pijlmar GP, Vlak JM. Thirty years of baculovirus – insect cell protein expression: from dark horse to mainstream technology. J Gen Virol 2015; 96: 6-23.
29 Mckenzie S. The Baculovirus Expression Vector System (BEVS). Feb. 26, 2019.
30 Fisher BL. Use of Insect Cells for Influenza Vaccine Production. Oral public comment at Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee (VRBPAC) Nov. 19, 2009.
31 Felderbaum RB. The baculovirus expression vector system: A commercial manufacturing platform for viral vaccines and gene therapy vectors. Biotech J 2015: 10(5): 702-714.
32 Lovelace Jr. B. If Sanofi’s coronavirus vaccine works, CEO says it can produce up to 600 million doses next year. CNBC Apr. 17, 2020.
33 Sagonowsky E. Sanofi, GSK Tie Up for COVID-19 Vaccine Work With Eyes on Possible 2021 Rollout. Fierce Pharma Apr. 14, 2020.
34 Roland D. GlaxoSmithKline, Sanofi Team Up for Coronavirus Vaccine. The Wall Street Journal Apr. 14, 2020.
35 Sanofi Pasteur. Sanofi and Translate Bio collaborate to develop novel mRNA vaccine candidate against COVID-19. Mar. 27, 2020.
36 World Health Organization. DRAFT landscape of COVID-19 candidate vaccines – 11 April 2020. Apr. 11, 2020.

35 Responses to "GSK and Sanofi COVID-19 Vaccine Produced in Insect Cells with Squalene Adjuvant"

  1. Kay   May 4, 2020 at 2:41 pm

    How will they ensure they have neutralizing antibodies and not binding antibodies? The companies need to be held accountable and have complete liability for any and all adverse reactions and deaths. We don’t want another Dengue vaccine mistake where the vaccine causes greater death. Any chance of death can not be seen as acceptable. It would be better off to just not to use it.

    Reply
    • naomi   May 4, 2020 at 6:05 pm

      decades ago, the US congress granted immunity from prosecution to drug manufacturers and the billions that have been paid out for vaccine injury claims comes out of our tax dollars……..

      Reply
    • Lydia   May 5, 2020 at 11:02 pm

      Thats right

      Reply
      • tamarque   May 9, 2020 at 12:08 pm

        And that payout was a just for a smidgeon of the cases attempted to be brought before VAERS. VAERS response was to toss about 5000 cases without being heard because ALL VACCINES ARE INHERENTLY HARMFUL. This should have been major news but most people have no clue. What this says is that after the government forces vaccine drugging the parents of damaged children are being held responsible

        This is horrifying twisted logic that promises more of the same logic when total mandated vaccination and whatever else corporations want to force on the public will develop.

        Reply
    • sheldon101   May 7, 2020 at 9:20 pm

      I expect that there will be a liability fund for those alleged to have been damaged by the vaccine or vaccines that are absolutely necessary to have the world return to some type of normality.

      In reality, the vaccine will be proven, as all other current vaccine, to be exceptionally safe.

      This is a problem for anti-vaxxers. They have to have anything they can latch upon to hide the reality that they are in favor of a lot of deaths and a lot of injuries and a lot of damage to the world.

      Reply
  2. DesertChick   May 4, 2020 at 3:09 pm

    If you are into putting all kinds of toxins into your body, then by all means be the first in line to be a lab rat for Bill Gates and his merry gang of vaccine criminals. But remember, if you have adverse effects, this gang has Immunity from being sued for wrecking your life.

    Reply
  3. bob   May 4, 2020 at 3:34 pm

    What a horror show. A cocktail of mixed viruses and retroviruses, all unintended and in addition to the freaky insect virus. But hey, they won’t bother most of you…unless your immune system takes a stumble and then they come out to play. And wouldn’t an adjuvant be just the thing to activate some of these retroviruses? Or another virus just like Covid19 may be the thing to over-tax the immune system and allow the retroviruses to express. Haven’t they already said that those who received the flu vaccine were more susceptible to Covid19 because their immune systems were already taxed and a inflammatory condition was already created by that vaccine.

    Reply
  4. CAWS   May 4, 2020 at 3:36 pm

    So we now have animal diseases/cancers and bird diseases from vaccines and now we will have insect diseases. Doesn’t the Bible say not to cross the blood of man & animals? Maybe they were not just talking about sex. Injecting foreign DNA is insanity; but hey if you stand to make BILLIONS and have NO LIABILITY by law then who cares. MONSTROUS!

    Reply
  5. Siegfried Zierath, D.C.   May 4, 2020 at 4:04 pm

    I will much rather support my innate immune system and trust it to know how to fight an infection, rather than these patented cocktails they inject to force an immune reaction which may raise antibodies to an antigen that mutates, but may not make me immune anyway, and may suppress my immune response to other infectious agents, and leave toxic adjuvants and preservatives and contaminants to do damage that they can’t predict.

    Reply
  6. Michael   May 4, 2020 at 4:10 pm

    If no one has purified the Covid 19 virus via Koch’s postulates then all that is in the vaccines are rogue RNA and cell bits with powerful adjuvants. Has any virus been isolated, truly isolated by purification? If no, then is there idea of vaccine effectiveness based on how much the adjuvants stir up the immune response? If yes, then what do the t-cells remember fighting if no virus is present? Are we going to see squalene reactions like we saw in gulf war syndrome? I know I am making a lot of assumptions but these are questions I would like answers for. Anyone?

    Reply
  7. TruthSayer   May 4, 2020 at 4:23 pm

    And what is NVIC’s take on this? This has been made way too complicated (as usual), when the natural process of the human body is much more simple than this medical industrial complex competition and profit driven campaigns care to admit. Mother nature has the cure for all imbalances and the body is much more intelligent than any scientific lab. We are made of everything she is made of. Vaccines are POISONS, BARBARIAN and PRIMITIVE. Just the vibration, the energy around the materials, the rush to create such synthetic, fake and deadly substances to zombie feed their human lab rats. The fear, greed, the amount of time and energy it takes to pretend that they know and to cover up what they do know is regressive. And who are the people that are frantically waiting? The mere guinea pigs and rats – that’s 99% of humanity. What a global catastrophe! Worse than the so-called virus threat. It will be just another dip into the lowest, lowest of consciousness. RISE UP Humanity!

    Reply
  8. Lotus Lady   May 4, 2020 at 4:38 pm

    If they want to help as many people as possible, as quickly as possible, as they claim, they should be donating the vaccines instead of selling them. Or selling them at cost. 600 million. Wow! That’s a ton of money!

    Reply
  9. Lisa Allen   May 4, 2020 at 5:21 pm

    Every step of the process introduces something new or different, and each step simply assumes that no possible harm can result. Science doesn’t entirely understand exactly how our immune systems work, yet we should all feel confident that introducing DNA particles from viruses, animal cells, and assorted things identified with acronyms will have absolutely no effect on our bodies other than the ONLY one they promise. This a train wreck of monumental dimensions waiting to happen. How many of our civil rights going to have to taken away to get everyone to jump onboard?

    Reply
  10. MICHAEL   May 4, 2020 at 5:55 pm

    BOTTOM LINE – EXPECT MANDATORY ADULT AND CHILDREN VACCINATION WORLDWIDE WITHOUT MEDICAL OR RELIGIOUS EXEMPTION BY MID-2021. THIS VACCINE WILL BE SOLD BASED ON THE “SAVE THE WORLD” PRINCIPLE QUOTING THE NUMBER OF DEATHS CONSTRUCTED BY FALSIFIED CAUSE OF DEATH CERTIFICATES WORLD WIDE. THERE WILL BE NOT MORE THAN 2000 TEST CASES LASTING 5 DAYS SO EVERYONE WITH AUTO-IMMUNE, OR ANY OTHER CHRONIC DISEASE WILL BE AT RISK OF DEATH, PARALYSIS, OR AUTISM/MS/ALZHEIMER’S. HELLO POPULATION CONTROL EXCEPT THE HEALTHCARE COST WILL BK MOST COUNTRIES.

    Reply
  11. Sue R Carbone   May 4, 2020 at 6:35 pm

    If this vaccine is mandated, as is possible, people will be forced to be vaccinated to work, travel, go to school , travel, driver licenses. We will have lost our civil liberties.

    Reply
    • Joy Metcalf   May 6, 2020 at 1:56 pm

      No doubt they attempt to mandate the vaccine, but there are always ways to avoid that, and many will. No transportation? Horses, bicycles, roller skates, shank’s mare. No grocery stores? Grow your own. Can’t buy and sell? Barter.

      Reply
    • Jo   May 14, 2020 at 10:52 pm

      You lose them if you allow them to be taken. #WeDoNotConsent

      Reply
  12. PHYLLIS BALA   May 4, 2020 at 7:15 pm

    There is an over abundant reference to HPV vaccines under various brand names. Fugetabout cancers and diseases that might be attributable to the up & coming new generation of terrifying crossed species contaminated “vaccines”. Has anyone of this audience looked at the galleries of photos of children (mostly girls) who have been maimed & thoroughly disabled by HPV vaccines? Have you watched those videos or read those stories? No? That’s what this is looking like, but….I fear….much worse. A person would most likely be very, very fortunate to die outright from this type of vaccine, rather than a life condemned to outrageous suffering with WHOM to care for them and NO effective treatment options? I’d rather take my chances or die fighting against it.

    Reply
  13. Lawrence Greenberg   May 4, 2020 at 7:55 pm

    “Evidence that aluminum is neurotoxic to humans has been steadily accumulating in the medical literature.”

    I seem to recall reading that aluminum is also implicated in Alzheimer’s and other forms of dementia. I read that autopsies of the brains of deceased dementia victims had hig levels of aluminum.

    Sadly, as is the case with so many other things in this day and age, FOLLOW THE MONEY.

    Reply
  14. Margie   May 4, 2020 at 9:07 pm

    Thank you for this well researched, written written article. I don’t find it necessary to preach to the converted, but, by sharing a logical, science-based article, I will be able to get others to think about these issues and not blindly accept whatever comes down the pike. I appreciate the information for myself as well. I hope you will continue to author similar articles as pharmaceutical companies move forward with this endeavor.

    Reply
  15. Nim   May 4, 2020 at 9:13 pm

    You have nothing if you do not have your health. We all know people who live every day in pain, or struggle to do simple things like open a jar or walk to their car. Is the risk to YOUR health worth it? Are you willing to possibly live the rest of your days in an unhealthy state that will irrevocably change your life as you know it? THAT is the question we will have to ask ourselves. When a government of bureaucrats that have nothing to lose, want to force their will and inject substances of unknown safety into the people of the country, it is time for ALL citizens to revolt and REFUSE TO SUBMIT.

    Reply
  16. Sissy   May 5, 2020 at 7:57 am

    What can we do about the government forcing everyone to be vaccinated.

    Reply
    • Joy Metcalf   May 6, 2020 at 1:55 pm

      Refuse.

      Reply
  17. Emma Kahn   May 5, 2020 at 8:24 am

    https://www.aimsib.org/en/2020/05/03/vaccin-anti-covid-19-et-immunite-de-groupe-cest-non-et-encore-non/

    Covid-19 vaccine and herd immunity, that’s no… and still no…
    Although all current thinking is greedily tending towards a close deconfinement, let’s take a step forward here, it is indeed the dual subject of the life-saving vaccine and providential group immunity that will occupy all minds tomorrow. Is it reasonable to hope that the COVID-19 conundrum can be solved so easily, or what is the public health risk if our “experts” lead us into situations even more damaging than the one we are experiencing today? It is Dr. Emma Kahn, our formidable virologist, who is helping us update our knowledge here. Enjoy your reading.
    Executive Summary
    Herd immunity is a concept based solely on mathematical models derived from observations of measles in the pre-vaccine era.
    These models and the resulting preventive strategies have failed to eradicate this disease and will further fail to control Covid-19 due to an emerging, and therefore poorly understood, virus whose characteristics in epidemiological terms seem far removed from that of measles (based on what is known about the 2003 SARS-CoV) and from what has been learned from SARS-CoV-2.
    Attempts to develop a vaccine against 2003 SARS (due to a close relative of SARS-CoV-2) have all failed since then, in particular because of the occurrence of serious immunopathological phenomena, including the formidable facilitation of infection induced by certain types of antibodies (ADE antibody dependent enhancement). For this reason, no vaccine should be marketed against Covid-19 unless all precautions have been taken.
    The few trials currently underway are being conducted by start-ups and not by the major pharmaceutical industry, which as usual is waiting to acquire any future discoveries.

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  18. Lisa   May 5, 2020 at 10:45 am

    Can anyone confirm that aborted fetal tissue will also be in the vaccine? I’m hearing that it will be but want to confirm.

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  19. Eva   May 5, 2020 at 4:47 pm

    Thank you Emma

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  20. Genesis   May 6, 2020 at 11:04 am

    The most sickening thing about this is that day after day children are still being damaged and killed by these disgusting vaccines that contain the most toxic and repulse ingredients a mad scientist could come up with. Needless to say, I highly doubt any of these manufacturers take their own vaccines, definitely not the elites, or Bill Gates himself. They are criminals every single one of them. We have to make sure this information gets out to everyone and end this vaccine insanity. It destroys our immune systems. They have complete immunity from damages and no incentive to make them safe. Thank you for these detailed article. Your work is so much appreciated in a world where all we here is the repeated “safe a’d effective” nonsense from the media

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  21. Colorado   May 6, 2020 at 12:26 pm

    Horror show indeed. This is so insane.

    We have effectively already lost our liberties and constitutional rights.

    We’re not battered down and helpless just yet but it will be a long road to crawl our way back out and reaffirm our freedom.

    Handcuffs for medical malpractice and handcuffs for white collar criminals. Corporations are not people.

    As RFK Jr from Childrens Health Defense stated; These people are felons. Persons whom around the world have been indited and convicted of wrongdoing are currently guiding are national health policy.

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  22. Lisa   May 6, 2020 at 1:21 pm

    All of this is Bill Gates disgusting way to control population and lie to everyone about this ridiculous vaccine..My body, my choice..I am NOT getting any kind of vaccine because all the Dr’s I’ve spoken to stated the hospitals are dead..They had to furlough out so many nurses and other medical care workers because #1 There is no pandemic..I’ve spoken personally to over 5 Dr’s do to my own due diligence of researching the truth..Funny how Bill Gates is literally behind every single health organization there is..He’s on the mainstream garbage media 24/7..This man is NOT a Dr. and why are people asking this idiot for any kind of advice..He’s heavily into Eugenics as was his family who were billionaires..They were close friends w/the Rockefeller’s and Rothschild’s..This should give the world room for pause..My body! My choice. I’ve taken 1-2000 mg of Vitamin C daily w/ Zinc and with D3 and making sure I get out into the sunshine and drink plenty of water, and organic veggies and fruit and seeds etc… I’ve never actually felt or been better in my life..but again, I’ve always lead this kind of lifestyle.. I think everyone should always try to keep an extra healthy immune system..Dr’s I know have stated that over 60k people a year die of the flu..What now are we supposed to quarantine as the economy crashes and the way we literally got screwed off this grotesque disbursing of money to billionaires and huge corporations and of all places Wall Street as this presidential election is supposed to be going on..This literally sounds as if it’s been in the planning for years..Put the fear of God in everyone by fudging numbers, which they have about death and/or how many people actually have it..I’ve seen footage used for hospitals the exact same footage used for Italy was used in the U.S and usually because of patient Dr. confidentiality, why would news camera’s be crawling around hospitals showing patients etc., at all..This is pure BALONEY!!! Gates and his cronies at The World Health Organization are disgusting and deep into this and they want to make billions more from vaccines..He’s worth over $100 billion alone..The man is 65 years old..How much does he need till he feels satiated..He’s murdered over hundreds and hundreds of people in India and in Africa alone..Does the crap mainstream media, that thank God, I have sense to NEVER watch because all they do is lie and fear monger and want to keep you in some kind of state of panic.The minute, months ago, when I saw the incredible amounts of saturation of this Covid 19 issue, I KNEW instinctively something was up..We have gone through SARS, MERS, H1N1, Swine, Ebola, and so much more..No quarantines and no crashing of the economy to make it where small businesses become shells and we have another monopolizing scumbag like Jeff Bezos come in and buy everyplace out, so your only choice will be to order from him on line.Well, I’ve boycotted him, Walmart, all these huge box stores that are amazingly crawling w/people all over the place..No masks, nothing and yet, they’re all open for business..So I call BS..I call BS because I truly feel this has been a planned incident to make everyone incredibly vulnerable and make them broke as well as lose our food sources..This is insanity at it’s highest level and it all goes back, at every single avenue of my research goes into, all leads to Bill Gates, the most hated man in America, actually the world, go take a good look at his IG account of Youtube vids and you’ll see people going after him and stating if he thinks his NWO garbage is going to use us a guinea pigs, WRONG..He’s going to literally have to watch his step..People are threatening to kill him for wanting to vaccinate the world, remove our rights to choose and try to mandate this along w/chips. This won’t happen or that man will live to regret this..He’s the most hated man in the world right now… He can hide out in his $123 million 60,000 sq foot compound and or go to his other 12 homes..He better get the hell out of the people’s business..This is beyond dystopian and we don’t need a vaccine for this..I’ve literally never had as much as a cold or flu since middle school and that was in 1998. I have never had a flu shot and I never will.. That’s that..Love your updates Dr. Mercola..

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  23. J.M.   May 6, 2020 at 2:52 pm

    I’m sure that shooting insect DNA into people won’t cause any problems at all. And of course the whole Pasteur virus theory is flawed, plus add to the fact that vaccines bypass the normal route of infection (mucous membranes) and that the vaccines have never been tested for safety (they always use an adjuvant, even in “placebos”), what can go wrong?

    Then add to the fact that despite the billons upon billons of research dollars spent looking for “cures”, not a single disease has been cured using drugs or vaccines.

    The whole medical system is broken and needs to be torn down and rebuilt using non-agenda driven science.

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  24. Brian James   May 8, 2020 at 12:00 pm

    Apr 26, 2020 Bill Gates: Phase 2 Is A Bio Terror Attack

    We were once told our enemies were nation states and we had to duck and cover because the enemy could strike with great devastation at a moments notice.

    https://youtu.be/BYPPY4IXgSA

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  25. Mary   May 10, 2020 at 12:16 pm

    This is a statement from the National Institute of Health–not the reference to vaccines. I have wondered if some of the severe illness that this coronavirus has caused is related not just to diabetes and other prior conditions but the vaccination history of the patients. Anyway, the statment reads:

    “In general, virus-specific antibodies are considered antiviral and play an important role in the control of virus infections in a number of ways. However, in some instances, the presence of specific antibodies can be beneficial to the virus. This activity is known as antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of virus infection. The ADE of virus infection is a phenomenon in which virus-specific antibodies enhance the entry of virus, and in some cases the replication of virus, into monocytes/macrophages and granulocytic cells through interaction with Fc and/or complement receptors. This phenomenon has been reported in vitro and in vivo for viruses representing numerous families and genera of public health and veterinary importance. These viruses share some common features such as preferential replication in macrophages, ability to establish persistence, and antigenic diversity. For some viruses, ADE of infection has become a great concern to disease control by vaccination. Consequently, numerous approaches have been made to the development of vaccines with minimum or no risk for ADE. Identification of viral epitopes associated with ADE or neutralization is important for this purpose. In addition, clear understanding of the cellular events after virus entry through ADE has become crucial for developing efficient intervention. However, the mechanisms of ADE still remain to be better understood.”

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  26. elizabeth keith   May 11, 2020 at 10:19 am

    keep your guns, eat meat, and take no vaccines…ever

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  27. Irredenta   May 12, 2020 at 11:34 pm

    Baculoviruses are pathogens that attack insects and other arthropods. Like some human viruses, they are usually extremely small (less than a thousandth of a millimeter across),Life Cycle

    Viruses are unable to reproduce without a host – they are obligate parasites. Baculoviruses are no exception. The cells of the host’s body are taken over by the genetic message carried within each virion (Fig. C), and forced to produce more virus particles until the cell, and ultimately the insect dies. Most baculoviruses cause the host insect to die in a way that will maximize the chance that other insects will come in contact with the virus and become infected in turn
    An infection by baculovirus begins when an insect eats virus particles on a plant – perhaps from a sprayed treatment. The infected insect dies and “melts” or falls apart on foliage, releasing more virus. This additional infective material can infect more insects, continuing the cycle. crazy sceience hell no! you going put that in human blood???? NO!

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  28. TruthSayer   May 13, 2020 at 12:45 pm

    And what is NVIC’s take on this? There are approximately 8 billion people on this planet. And each of us are genetically structured uniquely. How can there be made one chemical laced, toxic vaccine for all unique individual beings? Let’s face the fact. It’s all about financial gain and it still is. It’s not about empowering people, its about taking their self-healing power away. This paradigm, the money driven consciousness will not exist forever. We are shifting away from this play. Nature has the cure and always will. Ask the pharmaceutical companies where they get their fundamental ingredients from before they tamper and chemicalize it.

    Reply

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